Friday, 21 April 2017

Did you know that...

Children under age 6 account for about half of the more than 2 million poisonings reported each year to U.S. poison centers, according to the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Learn from how to prevent this from happening, here.

US lawmakers introduced legislation that would provide a tax credit for new antibiotics and diagnostic tests. Get to know the opinion of the blog "Antibiotics - The Perfect Storm" on this matter, here. You can also read the original news here.

A new browser extension that allows those with limited resources to be made aware of the existence of free versions of a wanted article, has been introduced to the public in a post by the Ronin Institute. This is an incredibly good tool for those intelligent enough not to pay millions for science articles that should be of public domain. Find it here.

The Poison Review is slowly becoming my favourite science blog. They just impressed me tremendously after the last published podcast on 
The Assassination of Kim Jong-Nam. Read it here.

Finally, on this recovered smart-ass posting, let me tell you about a blog that is getting increasingly interesting for early science students. It's called Microbiology Info and they have some nice super short and summarised posts teaching loads of interesting matters. The last one is on 
blood cells and their functions. Visit here.

Monday, 3 April 2017

What's that coming over the hill, is it a Monster, is it a Monster? NO, it's Vietnamese Panga and Norwegian Salmon Fish :P

Every time I jump in the car after picking my boy up from his nursery, he wants me to play music I randomly buy for a pound from Poundland. Most of the times I just drop in into a local Poundland shop, look for something that might resemble my musical taste and buy a few CDs. With this practice I have been super lucky and found Franz Ferdinand's "The Fallen" or some really good stuff by the Kings of Leon. However, I've also been unlucky and got some very messed up choices... sorry Manic Street Preachers :P

The last time I went music-shopping at Poundland I got the album "Not accepted anywhere" by the Welsh band "The Automatic". And boy oh boy my son loves that "Monster" track. I play it every single day like 3/4 times for the kid's amusement. Hey, Kasabians of this world, bear in mind my kid is 3 and a half! 

Also recently, he has been into eating fish because of his nursery's menu; and I, being a vegetarian, cannot really advise him anything fishy for his meals. That's why I resorted to my wife who has a BSc in Marine Biology, and asked her for some tips on the matter. She is now an accountant and immediately jerked that responsibility to her mum, a really nice 'amateur chef' who immediately told us - "BUY ANYTHING BUT JUST DON'T GIVE HIM ANY NORWEGIAN SALMON OR VIETNAMESE PANGA FISH. THE MOST POISONOUS FISHES ON EARTH!"

Well, alarm bells rang in my head. I had to look into it... that's Toxicology right there asking to be investigated. And so I started reading, listening to stuff, inquiring until I found this incredible documentary entitled "Poisonous Fish: The Big Health Lie" starring a world renown environmentalist fighting alongside the Greenwarriors of Norway that goes by the name Kurt Oddekalv (for copyright reasons I can't embed the video here). But I am serving you the saucy facts right below, so steaming hot that you will learn that even schools are murdering their pupils with them poisonous food choices.


(Image from Raincoast Conservation Foundation)

Fact 1 - Over 2 million specimen cohabit restricted salmon farm spaces where disease, like the parasite sea lice that lodges onto the fish flesh and potentially kill them, spread and force the farming companies to spray their farming waters with neurotoxic pesticides. Sea-lice can become resistant to treatment which reinforces the use of more potent pesticides by desperate farmers. [1]

(Image from undercurrentnews)

Fact 2 - Due to low prices derived from modern farming conditions and due to market demands (Panga has become famous because it is odourless and tasteless, so chefs can add any flavour to it), the Vietnamese Panga Fish is now of the most consumed fishes in schools these days. 99% of the world production of Panga fish comes from Vietnam where poliphosphates are constantly used as practice. Even though poliphosphates do not represent an immediate health threat (they're just additives that facilitate freezing and artificially increase the fishes weight because they absorb water), they have been increasingly used these days in many other fish cultures. Gastric over exposure to this product might become a concern. For example, they are very common in codfish preservation (see post here). [2]

(Image from Slow Food)

Fact 3 - Most Panga fish are sick because of the river pollution where they are farmed in. These rivers have highly concentrated values of bacteria and algae that cause eutrophisation that is responsible for the low oxygen levels in these waters. In addition, farmers battle diseases by pumping enormous quantities of drugs to fight issues like bleeding in the fin area and liver disease. Antibiotics like sulphadiazine (used to treat meningitis) are regularly administered to the fish ponds generating ever more drug-resistant bacteria which in fact forces the farmers to administer even higher concentrations of antibiotics. And these antibiotics produce residues that are excreted or lost to nature and spread out, as well as accumulating in the tissues of the fishes. [3]

(Image from The Project Avalon Forum)

Fact 4 - In Norway, some of the pesticides used to combat diseases present in these salmon farms are the same that were used during the 1st world war to gas people, as believed by Kurt Oddekalv. [4] [5]

(Image from The Project Avalon Forum)

Fact 5 -  If it was only Panga and Salmon, but no, it's with the environmental conditions and not the subject animal farmed. Cods have been suffering genetic mutations that occasionally result in a mouth defect where they cannot close their mouths. A problem that in nature, according to Kurt Oddekalv, would take eight generations to clear out from their genotype.

(Image from The Hearty Soul)

Fact 6 - A wild salmon contains roughly 5-7% fat, but a farmed one will contain approximately in between 14.5% and 24% fat. Bearing in mind that the toxicants deposit predominantly in the fat tissue, these farmed salmons are large vessels of poisonous fat that researchers (e.g. Jérôme Ruzzin from the University of Bergen in Norway) have already related to increased obesity and diabetes, in studies conducted on rodents. The different pollutants found altogether in farmed salmon samples are among several others: endosulfan sufate (a highly toxic endocrine disruptor), and Dieldrin (a highly toxic pesticide likely to be carcinogenic and to act also as an endocrine disruptor). [6] [7]

(Image from esri)

Fact 7 - Surprisingly its not the pesticides sprayed onto the farming waters that represent the biggest threat, but those already incorporated in the dry pellets that are fed to these fishes. These pellets are concentrated protein and fat tablets that are made by companies specialised in fish feeds. In Europe, these companies buy mostly fatty fish coming from the Baltic sea, one of the most polluted seas in the entire world for it is surrounded by nine industrialised countries that dispose of their toxic residues into the Baltic waters. [8]

(Image from ChemService Inc.)

Fact 8 - Protein powders contain an antioxidant called Ethoxyquin (also known as Santoquin, Santoflex or Quinol) created in the labs by Monsanto (a biotechnology company).  This chemical was registered in 1959 as a pesticide to treat rubber, fruits and vegetables but can be found nowadays well above the 50 ug per kilogram concentration permitted by law in fishes analysed by the Swiss anti-fraud labs. Because of discrepancies in communications between parts (pellet-makers and fish-farmers) Ethoxyquin is being used well above what is supposed to. More surprisingly, this product has no specific toxicity studies performed (I could only find a review article) and the one Norwegian researcher who dedicated her PhD studies to the study of this pesticide lost her job and was forbidden to publish her findings. [9] [10]

(Image from The Budapest Beacon)

Fact 9 - Corruption to the highest level with terrifying impact on public health - It's a fearful former postgraduate that explains to us that there are no studies performed by the creators of Ethoxyquin on its safety. She discovered that the pesticide has the capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier, a boarder that should be impermeable to all toxic substances humans are exposed to. It's a startled former researcher that 'admits 'pressure from above organised in the shape of an old-time Italian Mafia. On the possible top of the pyramid we can find that research funding in Norway was cut to projects studying the toxicity of Ethoxyquin. And this entanglement of dark connections goes to the person responsible for the whole food security system in Norway; the same one holding stock participations and previous work relations with the world leader in dry-fish meal pellets. The moment you watch the whole video, find it here if it still is available on the web, you will find conflict of interest all over that network.

(Image from

Fact 10 - With an ever growing demand for food from the Western contemporary 'obese and diabetic' societies, no fish is going to waste. The fish skin, let's take cod as an example, is used for cosmetics, the spines and heads are crushed into a pulp that is used in ready-meals and pet food. All that wouldn't be a problem if the list of ingredients was compliant with an honest description of the real product used. That is because a 'fish fillet' is one thing and a pulp comprised of fat, bone and sparse fish meat is yet a completely different thing.

I told my wife the other day that outside Portugal there's loads of corruption, to a degree that fortunately we don't even see in my home country. However, the impact in countries with the economy of Portugal is much bigger because for a country as rich as Norway one can hardly see the impact of such level of corruption if not in the long term. However, the impact on the health of those consuming fish coming from the Norwegian fjords, or even from Vietnam, where regulations are overlooked either due to an entangled mob-like networking or simply because of a relaxed supervision from authorities, will always constitute a crime against humanity... regardless of what they might say.

[1] Jansen, P. A., Grontvedt, R. N., Tarpai, A., Kelgesen, K. O., Horsberg, T. E. (2016). "Surveillance of the sensitivity towards antiparasitic bath-treatments in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)". PLoS One, 11(2): e0149006. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149006.

[2] Sheard, P. R., Nute, G. R., Richardson, R. I., Perry. A., Taylor, A. A. (1999). "Injection of water and polyphosphate into pork to improve juiciness and tenderness after cooking". Meat Science, 51(4), pp. 371-379.

[3] Huysveld, S., Schaubroeck, T., Meester, S. D., Sorgeloos, P., Langenhove, H. V., Van linden, V., Dewulf, J. (2013). "Resource use analysys of Pangasius aquaculture in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam using exergetic life cycle assessment". Journal of Cleaner Production, 51, pp. 225-233.

[4] Smith, A. G and Gangolli, S. D. (2002). "Organochlorine chemicals in seafood: occurence and health concerns". Food and Chemical Toxicology40(6), pp. 767-779.  

[5] Shaw, S. D., Brenner, D., , Berger, M. L., Carpenter, D. O., Hong, C. S., Kannan, K. (2006). "PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and organochlorine pesticides in farmed Atlantic salmon from Maine, eastern Canada, and Norway, and wild salmon from Alaska". Environmental Science & Technology, 40(17), pp. 5347-5354.

[6] Ruzzin, J., Rasmus, P., Meugnier, E., Madsen, L., Lock, E-J., et al (2010). "Persistent organic pollutant exposure leads to insulin resistance syndrome". Environmental Health Perspectives Research Triangle Park, pp. 465-471.

[7] Aksnes, A., Gjerde, B., Roald, S. A. (1986). "Biological, chemical and organoleptic changes during maturation of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar". Aquaculture, 53(1), pp. 7-20.

[8] Rheinheimer, G. (1998). "Pollution in the Baltic Sea". Naturwissenschaften, 85(7), pp. 318-329.

[9] Blaszczyk, A., Augustyniak, A., Skolimowski, J. (2013). "Ethoxyquin: An antioxidant used in animal feed". International Journal of Food Science, Volume 2013, pp. 1-12.

[10] Ethoxyquin:EFSA safety assessment inconclusive, European Food Safety Authority, [], last visited on the 5th of April 2017, last update unknown.

Wednesday, 29 March 2017

Closure to homoSOYxuality

I have been a vegetarian for 20 years now, give and take. I've had my share of soy in the meals I cook, and also in the ones I have in restaurants. So far I can assure you that I still feel the same man, i.e., deeply in love with my wife, still feel attracted to the opposite sex (especially to anyone looking like Jennifer Lawrence, Natalie Portman, Monica Belluci or Charlize Theron), no shrinkage of penis has occurred so far (you'll have to trust me on that for I'll never post any proof on Instagram :P, I don't even have an Instagram account), and I am not infertile (two beautiful babies so far, but I'm stopping there and it's not about the soy beans, it's really that now I need to enjoy the kids and travel with them, show them the world, the different cultures and diversities so they don't blame soy beans for male homosexuality in the future).

I understand the political stance played by a scapegoat decoy, but we must be truthful to the available scientific data collected thus far. The best practice is actually to kind of lightly x-ray the previously referred literature (see post here) and see exactly what was measured, what agents were scrutinised and reference levels suggested to produce significant alterations (reference to these articles can be found in the previous post). Let's start then:

"Altered sexualy dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) volume in adult Long-Evans rats by dietary soy phytoestrogens"

A study using Long-Evans female and male rats where a Phytoestrogens-rich diet and a Phytoestrogens-free diet are put to test. There is a significant reduction in body weight and prostate weight observed, however, testosterone levels are not affected by the different diet treatments; and finally the Phytoestrogens-rich lifelong diet delays puberty onset without impacting on the cycle. The study does not check impact on humans and to be fair never intended to, but other questions we can distill are, for example, how many of us humans would indeed make a life based on phytoestrogens-rich diets? Most likely, no one. And how much phytoestrogens is too much? Where is the threshold? What other foods that make part of our diet also contain high levels of phytoestrogens, and what is a 'high level of phytoestrogens'???!

Again, this is not a judgmental analysis of the study, actually it's quite far from that, but instead a judgmental analysis of anyone using it as proof of soy impacting on human sexual maturation, per se.

"A soy supplement and tamoxifen inhibit sexual behaviour in female rats"

A study focusing on the patterns of sexual behaviour in rodents (rats) based on 'chemotrophism' triggered by progesterone and oestrogen. Diets containing different soy contents were studied as impacting agents on sexual mating behaviour a few hours after ingestion and analysed against a progesterone injection. Overall, the results indicated soy supplement as an oestrogen antagonist - bad news to certain people,  crude news in the overall picture -, but again, how much soy is too much, where's the threshold? I am not considering the study a limited one as to be fair it did study what was proposed in itself, but who can consider phenotypical/biochemical/endocrine changes to male biology simply based on these values? No one.

And to be fair I could go on and one with every single study discussed in the previous soy post, but it wouldn't take us anywhere. So I chose to discuss the hot topic, the one that really has been driving criticism against soy presence in diets go crazy, i.e., soy-based infant formulas.

"Safety of soy-based infant formulas containing isoflavones: The clinical evidence"

For starters, soy-based infant formulas provide a healthy alternative to those children who are lactose-intolerant. Moreover, they agree with the most strict regulatory and safety standards. A comparison study conducted at the University of Iowa, comparing between soy-based infant formula (SBIF) and human milk/cow's milk, and analysing mean weight in infants, resulted in no differences in the first 4 months of development. And a follow-up study of the adults who were fed either SBIFs or cow's milk showed that no differences were produced in their adult weight, for both males and females.

In terms of reproductive development the presence of isoflavones that some scientists attribute to impacting agents affecting sexual maturation stages of those fed with SBIFs, was also evaluated. But this article refers also other research articles written by intelligent people and not by lazy prophets of doom, that backup the complexity of extrapolating potential adverse effects (seen occurring in animal models) into the human biology.

I must quote the article on a few remarkable/excellent observations:

"...rodent studies investigating in utero exposure to isoflavones need to be interpreted in the light of the relatively lower estradiol levels in pregnant rodents compared with pregnant women. The fetal rat is exposed to picomole levels of estradiol whereas the human fetus is exposed to micromole levels of estradiol" [1].

"Fielden et al (2003) [2] studied the effect of gestational and lactational exposure to genistein on testicular weight and sperm quality in adult mice at levels comparable with or greater than human exposure. Results showed no significant treatment-related effects on male offspring body weight, anogenital distance, seminal vesicle weight, or testis weight. However, not all studies concur with these findings [3]". 

"In contrast, clinical studies showed that infants fed SBIF have normal reproductive development and later health. In an abstract, Businco et al (1999) [4] studied 34 children who had been fed SBIFs who were then evaluated at a median age 29 mo. A detailed physical exam included signs of sexual maturation and bone density, metabolic markers of bone, and one marker of estrogen. The investigators’ conclusion was that phytoestrogens in SBIFs did not induce hormonal effects".

And we could go on and on for weeks and get exactly the same feedback we have been comprising thus far. There isn't enough evidence that can suggest that phytoestrogens, to the levels that are fed to people, especially infants, can impact on sexual maturation. As to people turning gay because they are fed SBIF, what can I say???? Homosexuality has been among us since ever and now we need to blame soy for personal options??? What are people going to come up with next? That our politicians don't really want to corrupt, it's the air we breath that is making them selfish pricks?

Well, the judge is still out there for an eventual need to relate phytoestrogens to different sexual orientations. In terms of sexual maturation and aberrant sexual organs' development, we could very much blame parents for smoking, the tones of rubbish put into consumed meat, the completely makeshift foods that are sold in our supermarkets, the quality of our lives filled up with stress and anxiety, the incredible irrational intake of sugar and hydrogenated fats that are generating super obese newborns, the levels of lead that back in the 60s was present in the paint used in cradles and other furniture for children, or even the nail polish solvent ethyl acetate in toothpaste,  etc etc etc. 

I might bring up some hysterical/historical facts on that matter if you guys comment on this post and make me believe it's worth. See you soon and keep using soy, moderately as anything else... you wouldn't drink a whole cow would you? 


[1] Clark, J. H. (1998) Female reproductive and toxicology of estrogen. Korach, K. S. eds. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology 1998:259-276 Marcel Dekker New York.

[2] Fielden, M. R., Samy, S. M., Chou, K. C. & Zacharewski, T. R. (2003) Effect of human dietary exposure levels of genistein during gestation and lactation on long-term reproductive development and sperm quality in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol. 41:447-454.

[3] Wisniewski, A. B., Klein, S. L., Lakshmanan, Y. & Gearhart, J. P. (2003) Exposure to genistein during gestation and lactation demasculinizes the reproductive system in rats. J. Urol. 169:1582-1586.

[4] Businco, L., Bruno, G., Giampietro, P. G. & Furcolo, G. (1999) No oetrogens hormonal effects in long-term soy formula fed children. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.103:S169.

Tuesday, 21 March 2017

The only thing missing is the acid spurting


Alien, what a movie. I should see the trilogy again some time soon. My friend Licinia just made my day when earlier today she sent her own reenacting of the iconic terror-embedded moment when Sigourney Weaver is noticed by the Xenomorph XX121. All is there, the terror, the thrilling cold anxiety, the creature, the babe... the only thing missing is the toxic acid spurting.

Monday, 20 March 2017

Stolen Freedom, Violated Future, Cultural Arrest

I am in shock at the abysmal reality to which I have been recently exposed to... Shocking, to say the least. I can very briefly summarise the facts for you just to get you to better feel and understand how perplex the situation has made me. But let me warn you though that some people view it with cultural eyes. Therefore, they don't really understand that what I am about to tell you is nothing more than proof of the extreme need for educating people against a stolen freedom and a violated future.

Women do indeed empower their profiles when armed with qualifications; it's the only way men and women in this world can once for all individually evade a life marked by opression that due to traditionalist cultural arrest endanger the dream of a fairer world.

So let's go straight to the point 

I have been for many years now, monthly supporting two children as part of a project where I contribute £25 (each child) for their food, health and education. Well, in our western reality that doesn't seem much, but considering that this is something I am capable of providing with a lot of personal effort, and also considering that these children are based in Mozambique and Guatemala, it glows differently.

But I have been doing it with love, kindness and a deep belief that one day I can actually change the lives of these children. If they become properly educated they will be able to exit a cycle marked by limited options, poverty, social imbalance, broken dreams. The investment we put into one child will generate positive changes in all lives to him/her related.

Very well, I was eager to maintain the status quo of that financial support and I even had the dream of, later in their lives, becoming alongside my wife, a sponsor for their further higher education. I was really considering helping these two lives blossom into fully accomplished existences. That was deeply hurt, wounded and scarred when I got a phone call from one of the NGO members informing me that one of the girls I have been supporting had just married at the age of 14!

They were really nice in informing me promptly. All the details were there, they even mentioned that this is typical of rural areas and offered me the opportunity to replace this child (who was now to exit the program) by another one in desperate need for help. I obviously accepted. But I can't get rid of this sense of void, a certain sense of betrayal that destiny decided to inflict me with. How can a child who is barely 14 years old be given to someone, so to become the wife of him?, the wife of a male either as immature as herself or much older (and if that is the case, oh my, oh my...?)!!!?

I now remember the letters exchanged with this child through the charity's program, and her words 'tainted' with hopes and dreams of becoming a teacher later in life... that she loved school so much...

I can't help but wonder how much would that still be true for her life. It's even worse when one reads in the "The Guardian", a week ago or so, what a desperate life most of these young women are going through in their lives. Yes, this 'child' is from Guatemala.

Guatemalan children's shelter fire: death toll rises to 40 as demonstrations erupt

Friday, 17 March 2017

So far behiiiiiind

I know I haven't been posting recently. 

Bear with me until I have cleared some of the workload I have on my desk... 

Until then... IMMORTALITY!

Monday, 6 March 2017

Super quick guide to understand medical jargon

It is quite understandable that whenever medical doctors speak about the different conditions that affect us humans, we might blackout and go in-and-out consciousness for a while. Such happens because there is so much professional jargon spat a us that the normal brain would take in just the minimum bearable; that being - "Doc? Am I gonna be fine?".

Before your doctor comes up with yet another one of those super long terminology rampages that scare you more than the actual illness, it is time to breathe. The trick to understand that foreign 'Aramaic' language, regurgitated from the depths of some cold Alma Mater lost in both space and time, is actually reasonably simple.

Just close your eyes, listen to the word and break it into parts. 

I think I fool no one when I say that the secret, as in any other realm of knowledge, lies in the breaking of the whole into its component units. Is that Gestaltism? I remember vaguely something about it from my Psychology classes during my secondary school years... That and my professor's purple hair,..., oh and those five girls who never wanted to go out with me because apparently I was "too weird" for them.

Anyway, just look at the word has being made of two to three parts, tops: a prefix, a root and finally a suffix. The prefix, when present, either reinforces or changes the meaning of the word, as for example with the word 'Aniridia':

An - indicating absence or negation

Iridia - related to the iris of the eye

Then we have the root as being the central object (iris - in the previous example), and finally the suffix that is usually the action produced by or on the object.

But before you follow any of this as rule for life protected in the guts of some Ark of the Covenant, mind that I'm no linguist, and my intention here is just to help you at least understand what that guy in the white masonic gown is bragging about, so you avoid misinterpretations as the ones suggested in the picture.

Let's take a look at yet another example with the word 'Abiotrophy'. This means a progressive loss of an organ's/tissue's vitality that can result in loss of function. Now we Shogun-knife-cut-it-into-parts:

A - (prefix) meaning absence/negation of

Bio - (core object) meaning life

Trophy - (suffix action) meaning development

Now imagine you get the latest doctor's newsletter on the observations taken from your medical exams. You read that your records all point towards 'Thrombocytopenia'. "That can't be good, man, there's penia there" you think it to your self. But rather than immediately checking your parts for something wrong with the supposed 'penia', you can just apply the aforementioned method and break the word into its constituting parts:

Thrombo - relates to blood clots.

Cyto - relates to cells.

Penia - relates to deficiency.

Immediately you know your penis is actually fine! The issue is now to make sense of this big word by learning the meaning of these individual parts. You go with 'deficiency'... 'of cells'... 'of blood clots'. Hmmmmm! After a while, if you're not versed in the ways of medicine like most people aren't, you can at least comprehend that what is suggested is that you might have a low blood platelet count.

And this system works quite well for a lot of other really weird ailments, such as:

Osteopenia = Osteo + Penia = Bone + Deficiency = low bone density.

Myositis = Myo + Itis = muscle + inflammation = inflammation of the muscle tissue.

Hepatomegaly = Hepato + megaly = liver + large = enlarged liver condition.


You have now, at least, the very basics to understand health care professionals. What you really need now is a very basic, very straightforward list that can offer you some direct understanding of the human body and its conditions. I tried and did that for you! In this table you can find the most popular human bits and bobs, some suffixes that can guide you to an understanding of the ulterior condition. It's not the ultimate encyclopaedia, but I'm sure it will be helpful:

Human Bits and Bobs
Core word (few examples)
Actions (few examples)
Condition = -pathy
Infection/inflammation = -itis
Pain = -algia, -dynia
Vestibular-, Labyrinth-, Acoust-, Audit-
Deficiency = -penia 
Cornea-, Retina-, Iridia- 
Enlargement = -dilat 
Death = -nephrosis 
Gingiv-, Laryng-
Excessive = -hyper
Derma-, Derm-, Dermat-
Insufficient = -hypo
Weakness = -paresis
Respiration = -pnea
Endocard-, Myocard-
Paralysis = -paresia 
Degeneration = -(a)trophy 
Blood condition = -emia
Pneum-, Pulmonar-, Bronchi-
Irritation = -erethism
Formation = -genesis
Abnormal condition = iasis
To reduce = -lytic
To breakdown = -lysis
To cut = -spadia, -sect
Bring forth = -para

Spleen-To lead to = -duct

Well, for what is worth this is a mere guide to help you make a bit more sense of all those complicated terms. But my advice is that you resort to your healthcare professional for he/she is the one that can easily unblock any confusion resulting from complicated medical jargon.

See you soon!